How to Easily Toggle Between Relative and Absolute References in Excel

There are two types of cell references in Excel: absolute and relative.  Absolute references remain the same even if the formula is moved or copied to another cell.  Such a reference is denoted by use of a $ within the reference, e.g., $a$1, a$1, or $a1.  Relative references appear as the more familiar a1 and change when moved or copied.

To easily toggle reference types, just use the F4 key to cycle through relative and the 3 types of absolute references shown above.

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